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Terms Beginning with C

Canadian Avalanche Association (CAA)

The Canadian Avalanche Association (CAA) is a not-for-profit, non-government organization that establishes technical standards, delivers specialized programs and services, and represents the avalanche community to external stakeholders. The CAA administers certification and training of workers though the Industry Training Program (ITP) designed for workers required to identify and/or actively manage avalanche hazards. The CAA also develops guidelines, technical standards and rescue resources for the industrial avalanche community. The CAA also administers the Industry Information Exchange (InfoEx) which is a daily exchange of technical snow, weather, avalanche and terrain information between subscribers.

See: Avalanche Canada, InfoEx

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR)

The Canadian Aviation Regulations are a set of regulations produced by Transport Canada which describe the safety regulations and applicable standards to which all civil aviation operations must adhere. Often referenced in

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)

CSA International, a member of the CSA Group, is a provider of product testing and certification services for electrical, mechanical, fall protection, plumbing, gas and a variety of other products. CSA provides independent testing for equipment in Canada.


CE is the abbreviation of the French phrase "Conformité Européene" which literally means "European Conformity." CE Marking on a product is a manufacturer's declaration that the product complies with the essential requirements of the relevant European health, safety and environmental protection legislation, in practice by Product Directives. Product Directives contains the "essential requirements" and/or "performance levels" and "Harmonized Standards" to which the products must conform. Harmonized Standards are the technical specifications (European Standards or Harmonization Documents) which are established by several European standards agencies (CEN, CENELEC, etc).

Class D Fixed Line (CDFL)

Class D fixed line or CDFL is a system used to transport human loads suspended beneath a helicopter. CDFL is Transport canada approved rescue and access tool that can be used by a team of certified technicians and pilots to access difficult terrain or structures quickly. CDFL systems consist of specialised and transport canada approved aircraft attachments, long lines, harnesses, stretchers and other approved personnel carrying devices. CDFL is an extremely effective and efficient tool for worker access and rescue.

CDFL is also known as: Human external cargo (HEC), Helicopter External transport System (HETS), long line rescue, or short haul rescue.

Commercial Air Service Standard (CASS)

the Commercial Air Service Standard outlines the requirements for complying with part 7 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations. This standard relates to flight time and flight duty time limitations and rest periods for pilots and members of flight crews. It is extremely important to adhere to the standards set forth by CASS in rescue work and mountain flying due to the dynamic environment and high stress potential for pilots and flight crews.

Confined Space

A confined space is an area that has limited openings for entry and exit that workers can enter to perform work. These spaces are not designed or intended for continuous human occupancy and their restricted openings complicate the provision of first aid, evacuation and rescue. Confined spaces require special training and a well thought out rescue plan must be in place before any work takes place in a confined space.


A deep fissure in a glacier caused by differential movement of parts of the ice over an uneven topography. Crevasses are one of the main hazards encountered when traveling on a glacier as they can be often completely or partially covered by a snow bridge of variable thickness and stability.